Sifting through logs every day, looking for trouble, could leave little time for anything else—swatch helps.
Previously the Paranoid Penguin has pondered a plethora of powerful programs pursuant to protecting people's PCs from pernicious punks. [The right to excessive alliteration revocable at any time—Ed.] One important feature these tools share is logging; just as important as keeping system crackers out is knowing when they've tried to get in. But who's got the time or attention span to sift through scads of mostly innocuous log files on every system they administer, every single day?
swatch (the “Simple WATCHer”) does. swatch, written 100% in Perl, monitors logs as they're being written to and takes action when it finds something you've told it to look for. This simple, flexible and useful tool is a must-have for any healthily fearful system administrator.
There are two ways to install swatch. First, of course, is via whatever binary package of swatch, if any, your Linux distribution of choice provides. The current version of Mandrake has an RPM package of swatch, but none of the other more popular distributions (i.e., Red Hat, SuSE, Slackware or Debian) appear to include it.
This is just as well, though, because the second way to install swatch is quite interesting. swatch's source distribution, available from www.stanford.edu/~atkins/swatch, includes a sophisticated script called Makefile.PL. The script automatically checks for all necessary Perl modules and uses Perl 5's CPAN functionality to download and install any needed modules; it then generates a Makefile that can be used to build swatch.
After you've installed the required modules, either automatically from swatch's Makefile.PL script or manually (and then running perl Makefile.PL), Makefile.PL should return the following:
[root@barrelofun swatch-3.0.1]# perl Makefile.PL Checking for Time::HiRes 1.12 ... ok Checking for Date::Calc ... ok Checking for Date::Format ... ok Checking for File::Tail ... ok Checking if your kit is complete... Looks good Writing Makefile for swatch [root@barrelofun swatch-3.0.1]#
Once Makefile.PL has successfully created a Makefile for swatch, you can execute the following commands to build and install it:
make make test make install make realcleanThe make test command is optional but useful; it ensures that swatch can properly use the Perl modules we took the trouble to install.
Since the whole point of swatch is to simplify our lives, configuring swatch itself is, well, simple. swatch is controlled by a single file, default $HOME/.swatchrc. This file contains text patterns in the form of regular expressions you wish swatch to watch for. Each regular expression is followed by the action(s) you wish swatch to take whenever it encounters that text.
For example, suppose you've got a web server, and you want to be alerted any time someone attempts a buffer-overflow attack by requesting an extremely long filename. By trying this yourself against the web server while tailing its /var/apache/error.log, you know that Apache will log an entry that includes the string “File name too long”. Suppose further that you want to be e-mailed every time this happens. Here's what you'd need to have in your .swatchrc file:
watchfor /File name too long/ mail addresses=mick\@visi.com, subject=BufferOverflow_attempt
As you can see, the entry begins with a “watchfor” statement, followed by a regular expression. If you aren't proficient in the use of regular expressions yet (you are planning to learn regular expressions, aren't you?), don't worry: this can be as simple as a snippet of the text you want swatch to look for, spelled out verbatim between two slashes.
swatch will perform your choice of a number of actions when it matches your regular expression. In this example we've told swatch to send e-mail to mick\@visi.com, with a subject of BufferOverflow_attempt. Note the backslash before the @ sign; without it, Perl will interpret the @ sign as a special character. Note also that if you want spaces in your subject line, each space also needs to be escaped with a backslash, e.g., subject=Buffer\ Overflow\ attempt. Actions besides sending e-mail include those seen in Table 1.
For more details on configuring these and the other actions swatch supports, see the swatch(1) man page.
Let's take our example a step further. Suppose, in addition to being e-mailed about buffer-overflow attempts, you want to know whenever someone hits a certain web page, but only if you're logged on to a console at the time. In the same .swatchrc file, you'd add something like this:
watchfor /wuzza.html/ echo=red bell 2
The event will then cause a beep and print to the console.
It's important to note you will only see these messages and hear these beeps if you are logged on the console in the same shell session from which you launched swatch. If you log out to go get a sandwich, when you return and log back in, you will no longer see messages generated by the swatch processes launched in your old session, even though those processes will still be running.
When in doubt add either a “mail” action or some other non-console-specific action, e.g., an “exec” action that triggers a script that pages you. Unless, that is, the pattern in question isn't critical.
Alert readers have no doubt noticed that the scenario in the previous example will work only for Apache installations in which both errors and access messages are logged to the same file. We haven't associated different expressions with different watched files, nor can we do so. But what if you want swatch to watch more than one log file?
No problem. While each .swatchrc file may describe only one watched file, there's nothing to stop you from running multiple instances of swatch, each with its own .swatchrc file. In other words, .swatchrc is the default but not the required name for swatch configurations.
To split the two examples into two files, therefore, you'd put the lines in the previous simple .swatchrc entry into a file called, say, .swatchrc.hterror, and the lines in the previous watchfor entry into a file called .swatchrc.htaccess.
So far we've only considered actions we want to be triggered every time a given pattern is matched. There are several ways we can control swatch's behavior with greater granularity, however.
The first and most obvious way is to take advantage of the fact that search patterns take the form of regular expressions. Regular expressions, which really constitute a text-formatting language of their own, are incredibly powerful and responsible for a good deal of the magic that Perl, sed, vi and many other UNIX utilities can do.
It behooves you to know at least a couple of “regex” tricks, which I'll describe here. Trick number one is called alternation, and it adds a “logical or” to your regular expression in the form of a “|” sign. Consider this regular expression:
This expression will match any line containing either the word “reject” or the word “failed”. Use alternation when you want swatch to take the same action for more than one pattern.
Trick number two is the Perl-specific regular expression modifier “case-insensitive”, also known as “slash-i” since it always follows a regular expression's trailing slash. The regular expression /reject/i matches any line containing the word “reject”, whether it's spelled “Reject”, “REJECT”, “rEjEcT”, etc. Granted, this isn't nearly as useful as alternation, and in the interest of full disclosure, I'm compelled to mention that slash-i is one of the more CPU-intensive Perl modifiers. However, if despite your best efforts at log-tailing, self-attacking, etc., you aren't 100% sure how a worrisome attack might look in a log file, slash-i helps you make a reasonable guess.
If you wish to become a regular expression archimage, I recommend the book Mastering Regular Expressions by Jeffrey E. F. Friedl. See Resources for details.
Another way to control swatch to a greater degree is to specify what time of day a given action may be performed. You can do this by sticking a “when=” option after any action. For example, below I've got a .swatchrc entry for a medium-importance event I want to know about via console messages during weekdays, but I'll need e-mail messages to know about it during the weekend. To do this I set the when option:
/file system full/ echo=red mail addresses=mick\@visi.com, subject=Volume_Full,when=7-1:1-24
The syntax of the when= option is when=range_of_days:range_of_hours. Thus, we see that any time the message “file system full” is logged, swatch will echo the log entry to the console in red ink. It will also send e-mail, but only if it's Saturday (“7”) or Sunday (“1”).
swatch expects .swatchrc to live in the home directory of the user who invokes swatch. swatch also keeps its temporary files there by default (each time it's invoked it creates and runs a script called a “watcher process”, whose name ends with a dot followed by the PID of the swatch process that created it).
The -c path_to_configfile and --script-dir=path flags let you specify alternate locations for swatch's configuration and script files, respectively. Never keep either in a world-writable directory, however. In fact, only these files' owners should even be able to read them.
For example, to invoke swatch so it reads my custom configuration file in /var/log and also uses that directory for its watcher process script, I'd use this command:
swatch -c /var/log/.swatchrc.access --script-dir=/var/log &
I also need to tell swatch which file to tail, and for that I need the -t filename flag. If I wanted to use the above command to have swatch monitor /var/log/apache/access_log, it would look like this:
swatch -c /var/log/.swatchrc.access --script-dir=/var/log \ -t /var/log/apache/access_log &swatch generally doesn't clean up after itself very well; it tends to leave watcher-process scripts behind. Keep an eye out for and periodically delete these in your home directory or in the script directories you tend to specify with --script-dir.
Again, if you want swatch to monitor multiple files, you'll need to run swatch multiple times, with at least a different tailing-target (-t value) specified each time and probably a different configuration file for each as well.
Once swatch is configured and running, we must turn our attention to the Goldilocks Goal: we want swatch to be running neither too hot (alerting us about routine or trivial events) nor too cold (never alerting us about anything). But what constitutes just right? There are as many different answers to this question as there are uses for UNIX.
Anyhow, you don't need me to tell you what constitutes nuisance-level reporting: if it happens you'll know it. You may even experience a scare or two in responding to events that set off alarms initially but turn out to be harmless nonetheless. Read the manual, tweak .swatch.rc and stay the course.
The other scenario, in which too little is watched for, is much harder to address, especially for the beginning system administrator. By definition, anomalous events don't happen too frequently, so how do you anticipate how they'll manifest themselves in the logs? My first bit of advice is to get in the habit of browsing your system logs often enough to get a feel for what the routine operation of your systems looks like.
Better still, tail the logs in real time. If you enter the command
tail -f /var/log/messages
the last 50 lines of the system log will be printed, plus all subsequent lines, as they're generated, until you kill tail with a Ctrl-C. This works for any file, even a log file that changes rapidly.
Another good thing you can do is to “beat up on” your system in one virtual console or xterm while tailing various log files in another. The tools we explored last month and the month before, Nessus and nmap, respectively, are perfect for this.
By now you may be thinking, “Hey, I thought the whole reason I installed swatch was so I wouldn't have to watch log files manually!” Nope. swatch minimizes, but does not eliminate, the need for us to parse log files.
Were you able to quit using your arithmetic skills after you got your first pocket calculator? No. For that matter, can you use a calculator in the first place unless you already know how to add, multiply, etc.? Definitely not. Same goes for log file parsing: you can't tell swatch to look for things you can't identify yourself, no more than you can ask for directions to a town whose name you've forgotten.
In the same vein, I urge you to not be complacent about swatch silence. If swatch's actions don't fire very often, it could be that your system isn't getting probed or misused often, but it's at least as likely that swatch isn't casting its net widely enough. Continue to scan through your logs manually from time to time to see if you're missing anything, and continue to tweak .swatchrc.
And don't forget to reconsider periodically the auditing/logging configurations of the dæmons that generate log messages in the first place. swatch won't catch events that aren't logged at all. Refer to the syslogd(8) man page for general instructions on managing your syslog dæmon and the man pages of the various things that log to syslog for specific instructions on changing the way they log events.